Moderators' note ("give credit where credit is due"): This post is the result of merging posts by Dave Humm and Kogusoku into the original post by Rebel Wado. Original input by Dave and Kogusoku can still be seen in the Japanese Terms thread. ========================================= Ichi, ni, san, shi (yon), go, roku, shichi (nana), hatchi, ku, ju: One through ten. Ai hanmi: Standing so that uke and nage have the same foot forward. When Nage and Uke face each other in the same stance Ai uchi: Simultaneous strikes. Both opponents strike each other at virtually the same time. Mutual slaying. Ai: harmony, unity, blending Aikidoka: Practitioner of aikido. Aikijujitsu: "The flexible [martial] art of harmonizing energy." Much of aikido is immediately traceable to a particular style of aikijujitsu called Daito-Ryu. Aiki taiso: warm-up exercises that are actually pieces of aikido techniques Aikiotoshi: A throw in which nage pins uke’s legs together. Atemi: A strike or blow intended variously to take uke’s mind, to disorient, to shock, or to damage uke. Ato no sen: Setting the second beat. It involves moving out of uke’s line of attack as uke’s energy expands and then expanding into uke as uke’s energy naturally contracts. Awase: harmonizing or blending movement Bokken: Wooden sword Budo: The way/lifestyle of the warrior. Several martial arts, including aikido, were created for the purpose of being studied as a budo. Bunkai: Application (interpretation) of kata techniques Choku tsuki: Straight punch Chudan: Middle position, mid-level. Dan: a "black belt" level of rank. There are 10 dan ranks in aikido. Deshi: student Do: Way, lifestyle Dogi: the "white pajamas" training outfit of many martial arts including aikido. Usually it is shortened to "gi." Dojo: School or training hall Dojo cho: the head of a particular dojo. Domo arigato gozaimasu: "Thank you very much." Used when the activity is still going on, as for example between training partners during an aikido class. Domo arigato gozaimashita: "Thank you very much." Used when the activity has ended, as for example at the end of an aikido class. Dosa: Exercise Doshu: Literally "master of the way," it is the title of the leader, or head, of a particular budo. The current doshu of aikido is the grandson of the founder of aikido. Dozo: Please Eritori: Collar grab, usually from behind. Fudo dachi: Fighting Stance Furitama: An exercise in which the hands are cupped and pressed against the body at the hara and pulsed rhythmically. Gedan: low level, low position (as opposed to chudan and jodan) Gedan no kamae: low level posture (used in sword work) Geri: Kick. Go no sen: Seizing the initiative later; Allowing your opponent to attack first so as to open up target for counter-attacks. Gokkyo (Gokyo): Wrist technique in which wrist is held palm up. The fifth immobilization, similar to ikkyo. Gomen nasai: “I’m sorry”, used when one person has fallen into another or any other appropriate time. Gyaku: Opposite, reverse. Gyaku hanmi: Standing so that uke and nage have opposite feet forward, the mirror image of each other. Gyaku tsuki: Reverse punch Hai: Yes Hakama: The extra pair of pants worn over the dogi pants. Because the legs are wide, it often looks like a long skirt. Hanmi: The basic, standard, aikido triangular stance. Hanmi handachi: With nage in sitting or kneeling posture, uke attacks from standing. Hara: The center of gravity which should be about two inches below the navel (bellybutton). It corresponds to the third chakra in yoga practice. Hasso no kamae: weapon stance with the weapon held vertically at shoulder level Hidari: Left Hijitori: Elbow grab. Hombu: headquarters Hombu dojo: the central office dojo for a particular style of aikido. For Aikikai aikido, where O-Sensei's grandson is doshu, the hombu dojo is in Tokyo, Japan. Iie: No Ikkyo: The first immobilization. It's an armbar wherein the arm is held without pressure to the joints. Ikkyo undo: A training exercise in which the arms are raised as if in preparation to do ikkyo. This same movement appears in many aikido techniques. Irimi: Entering, inward, into the body Irimi nage: Entering throw. Iwama: A town in Ibarai Prefecture, Japan, where O-Sensei lived for a time and established an aikido dojo. His student Morihiro Saito remained there and established a style of aikido now called Iwama-style or Iwama-Ryu aikido. Jiyu geiko: Freestyle training/practice Jiyu kumite: Freestyle sparring Jiyu waza: Free technique ("anything goes") Jo: Short staff. (Some people say the proper length is 4 feet. Some people say the proper length is the height of your sternum.) Jodan: High level, head level, upper way or position. Jodan no kamae: High level posture with a weapon, as where a sword is held above the head read to cut downward. Jodan tsuki: thrust to the head Jo tori: Techniques applied against attacks with a jo. Ju: pliable, flexible, yielding Judo: the flexible/yielding way. It is a martial art developed a few decades before aikido. Many of the early aikido masters first learned judo. Jujitsu: the flexible/yielding art. It is often considered the "mother art" of Japanese martial arts and was taught to samurai warriors in the event they lost their weapons during battle. Judo, aikijujitsu, and aikido all have roots in jujitsu. Juji Nage: Throw in which uke's arms are crossed at the elbows. (Juji is the number ten in Japaense. It's written character looks like a cross.) Jun tsuki: a strike with the leading hand Kagi tsuki: Hook punch Kaeshi/gaeshi: return, turn, reverse Kaeshi waza: reversals, counter techniques Kaishu: Open hand Kaiten: Rotary, rotation. Kaiten-nage: Throw where uke is bent forward, uke's head is held down, and his arm is pushed diagonally across the back to force him to roll Kakae dori: "bear hug" from behind Kamae: posture, position, stance Kakiwaki uke: Reverse wedge block Kami: Spirits or demigods (as for example in the Shinto religion) Kamiza: honorary place in a dojo where something symbolic of aikido and/or important people in the dojo's history will be kept on display Kata: Shoulder Kata dori: Uke grabs nage's lapel or shoulder; shoulder grab. Katame waza: pinning techniques Katana: Sword Katate: Wrist Katatetori: Uke grabs one of Nage's wrists with one hand. Keiko: Practice. Ki: Universal life force, or inner energy. Kiai: shout/focus of spiritual energy; martial shout. Kiba dachi: Straddle Stance; horse stance with feet parallel. Kihon: Fundamentals, basics Kihon waza: basic techniques, training in basics Kime: Focus Kimusubi: To tie together, or match, ki. Kinagare: flow of ki, ki flow Kiri, giri: cut Kirikaeshi: returning cuts in paired sword practice Kizami tsuki: Jab Kogyu undo: Rowing exercise. Kohai: Junior Kokyu: breath, breathing Kokyu Nage (Kokyu Nage): "Breath throw," or the class of techniques which throw uke by body movement without employing joint techniques. Koshi: Hip. Koshinage: Hip throw; a throw where uke is thrown over Nage's hip. Kote: wrist and forearm area Kotegaeshi: "wrist turn;" a basic wrist throw in which the wrist is twisted outwards. Kotehineri: "twisted wrist;" sankyo technique. Kotemawashi: "turned wrist;" nikyo technique. Kubi shime: A choke hold or attack. Kumijo: Jo practice with a partner. Kumitachi: Sword practice with a partner. Kuzushi: Balance, balance point, to break another person's balance. Kyu: Rank below "black belt" Ma-ai, maai: A "harmonious" or "proper" distance between two opponents. Mae geri: front kick Mawashi geri: Round/roundhouse kick Men: Head area. Migi: Right Misogi: Ritual purification or cleansing. Morotetori: Two hands grabbing one; uke grabs Nage's forearm with both hands. Mushin: empty mind Nage: The person executing the technique; a throw itself Nage waza: throwing techniques Nikyo: "The second technique" consisting of a particular bending/turning of the wrist and an accompanying pin Obi: Belt Omote: front, surface. Techniques usually have two basic forms, one being "omote" (or "irimi") referring to uke's front, and the other "ura" (or "tenkan") referring to uke's back. Onegai Shimasu (Onegaishimasu): "Please," "I make a request," "Please train with me," said to one's partner when initiating practice. Osae: press down, pinning. O-Sensei : Morihei Ueshiba, the founder of Aikido. Otoshi: Drop, dropping. Rei: Bow. Reigi: Etiquette. Ryotetori: Uke grabs both of nage's wrists. Ryu: School. Sabaki: movement Sankyo: "The third technique;" a particular twist of the wrist and it's accompanying pin. Sayo undo: Side lateral swing exercise. Seiza: Formal knealing position. Sempai: Senior. Sen no sen: Seizing the initiative earlier; attacking at the same moment your opponent attacks. Sen sen no sen: Seizing the opponent’s sen no sen; Attacking before your opponent attacks; a preemptive attack. Sensei: In the context of aikido, it's an instructor/teacher in the dojo. Shihan: Master Instructor of the art; in Aikido it is usually reserved for 6th dan and higher. Shihonage: "Four direction throw" Shiho giri: Cutting in four directions (as in north, south, east, and west) . Shikko: Knee walking. Shime: Choke. Shinai: Bamboo sword Shinken: Sharpened, live sword. Shizentai: Natural standing posture. Shomen: Front part of the head (as in the forehead); front of the dojo. Shomen ni: Face towards the front Shomenuchi: Cut or blow to the forehead area. Suburi: Basic exercises with a sword or jo. Suki: opening, or weakness, in one's posture or technique. Sumimasen: "Excuse me," or "I'm sorry." Sumiotoshi: "Corner throw;" a particular throwing technique. Sutemi waza: High falls Suwari waza: Techniques done when both uke and nage are in seiza. Tachi: A sword. Tachi dori: Unarmed defense against sword. (Literally, "sword taking.") Tachi waza: Standing techniques. Tai: Body. Tai sabaki: Body movement, body shifting, evasive footwork. Taiso: Exercises. Takemusu: "Spontaneous execution of limitless technique." Tanden: Body center. Tanto: Knife (especially the Japanese-style dagger). Tanto tori: Unarmed defenses against a knife attack. Tatami: Straw mat. Te: Hand. Tegatana: "Sword hand;" to strike with the hand/arm as if it is a sword. Tekubi: Wrist Tekubi kosa undo: An exercise drawing the arms forward against an imaginary rear two-handed grab. Tekubi shindo undo: Wrist-shaking exercise. Tekubi osae: Pinned wrist. Ten: Heaven. Tenchi nage: "Heaven and earth throw;" a particular throw where uke's balance is taken with nage moving one arm up (toward heaven) and one arm down (toward earth). Tenkan: turn (as in nage turning relative to uke) Tenkan undo: A turning exercise involving a 180º spin or turn. Tori: the one who takes; in the context of aikido it is synonymous with uke in that they both receive, or take, the aikido technique being practiced. Tsuki: to thrust; in the context of aikido it could be either a punch with the fist, or a stab with a weapon. Uchi: To strike, or hit. Ude: Arm, forearm. Udekimenage: A throw applying pressure to the underside of uke’s elbow. Uke: The one who receives, or takes, the technique being practiced. Usually but not always he is the initial attacker. Contrast with "nage," the one who does the technique. Ukemi: Protective falling. Undo: Exercise. Ura: Back side, reverse side, inside. Techniques usually have two basic forms, one being "omote" (or "irimi") referring to uke's front, and the other "ura" (or "tenkan") referring to uke's back. Ushiro: Behind, backwards Ushiro kubishime: Uke grabs one of nage's wrists from behind and chokes nage with the other arm. Ushiro ryokatatori: Uke grabs Nage's shoulders from behind. Ushiro tekubi tori zenzen undo: An exercise practicing a defense against an imaginary two-handed rear grab. Ushiro tekubi tori: Rear wrist grab; uke grabs both of nage's wrists from behind Ushiro tori undo: An exercise practicing a defense against an imaginary "bear hug" from behind. Ushiro waza: Techniques from rear attacks. Waza: Technique, skill, training method. Yoko: Side, sideways, horizontal. Yokomenuchi: A strike to the head. Yonkyo: "The fourth technique." Yudansha: Students with a dan ("black belt") rank. Zanshin: Awareness, continued concentration; used of "follow through" and awareness focussed on the opponent after the execution of a technique. Zengo: Forward and backward, front and rear.